Council of Kadosh 19°-30°
(Historical and Philosophical Degrees) 

19°   GRAND PONTIFF
The eleven degrees of the Areopagus, which follow, unfold the errors and frailties of human nature and instruct us how to overcome them. This degree portrays the conflict between good and evil. The sworn Knight of Justice, Truth, and Tolerance is admonished to be patient and work. 

20°   MASTER AD VITAM The duties, powers and privileges of a Master.  That the right to govern is not only through selection of the brethren, but by intelligence attained through patient labor and the study of Masonic doctrines. The requisites are Toleration, Justice, and Truth. 

21°   NOACHITE, OR PRUSSIAN KNIGHT The story of the Crusaders who sought to shield and protect the innocent and, while rendering justice, to hold all guiltless until convicted. 

22°   PRINCE OF LIBANUS Known also as Knight of the Royal Axe. The story tells of those who cut cedars on Mount Libanus for the building of the Ark for Noah. This degree teaches men that labor is honorable and that we should strive to improve the condition of the toiling millions. All are workmen whatever be their vocations, and rank and nobility are not excepted. 

23°    CHIEF OF THE TABERNACLE Relates to the Tabernacle and its ancient ceremonies. Unholy sacrilege and presumptuous interference with sacred ceremonies are forbidden, and only those with hearts divested of all impurity are commended in the performance of holy rites. 

24°   PRINCE OF THE TABERNACLE The special duties of a Prince of the Tabernacle are to labor incessantly for the glory of God, the honor of his country, and the happiness of his brethren, and to offer up thanks and prayers in lieu of sacrifices of flesh and blood. 

25°   KNIGHT OF THE BRAZEN SERPENT Relates to the time when the camp of the Israelites was pitched at Punon after the death of Aaron, in the fortieth year of the wandering of the children of Israel in the wilderness.  The duties of a Knight of the Brazen Serpent are to purify the soul of its alloy of earthliness and to restore faith in God. 

26°  PRINCE OF MERCY When Domitian was emperor of Rome and when danger and death hung on their footsteps, the Christian Masons met in the Catacombs to celebrate the Mysteries. This degree, while depicting the mysteries as practiced by the first Christians, shows that Masonry is of no one age, belongs to all time, is of no one religion, and finds its great truths In all. 

27°   KNIGHT COMMANDER OF THE TEMPLE Dedicated to the Teutonic Knights of the House of St. Mary of Jerusalem. The Order originated at the siege of St. Jean d' Acre, when tents for the sick and wounded were made from the sails of ships. The Knights fought the infidel, Saladin, by day and nursed the sick by night and guarded the city of Jerusalem against the Saracens to protect Christendom. Their five excellent qualities were Humility, Temperance, Chastity, Generosity, and Honor. 

28°  KNIGHT OF THE SUN This is the last of the philosophical degrees and its doctrine is derived from the Kabala. It treats of Science, Reason and Faith, Nature being the primary, consistent, and certain revelation of God. 

29°   KNIGHT OF ST. ANDREW The degree intends to inculcate Equality and represents the Knight as the exponent of Truth; Toleration is exemplified in this, the last of the instructive degrees of the Historical and Philosophical series. It is a fitting climax to the theory of Universal Religion. (Chivalric Degrees) 

30°  KNIGHT KADOSH This and the following two degrees form the Templar degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The virtues of the Order are rehearsed and the reward for a due reverence of the obligations and observance of the vows and tenets of the Institution are exemplified. A Knight Kadosh proves himself practically a true defender of the Temple of the Most High God and, while armed with steel outwardly, he is inwardly armed with Faith and Love-Faith to God and Love for his fellow man